1. Many of the townsmen in the Landshaftn came from Eastern Galicia which in now part of Ukraine. The names used were the town or village names when the immigrants arrived in America.

With the passage of time and changes of national borders, the spellings have changed as well. My father's organization was named after his East Galician village of Trembowler (First Trembowler Y. F. B. A.). Today, it is in the Ukraine and its spelling is variously Trembowla, Trembovla, Trenbovlya, and Tereble.

My father left early in the 20th century as a young teenager. When the Germans occupied Trembowler during World War II, they murdered nearly all of the 1,200 Jews still living in that village. The Nazi invaders were under orders to use only one bullet per person and non-Jewish villagers who survived the war later reported that many Jews were buried in filled-in trenches while still alive.